Federal Republic of Germany
Flag of Germany
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor – a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field
Creative Industries Germany at Europa Regina
79,903,481 (July 2021 est.)
Internet country code: .de
Federal Republic of Germany / Bundesrepublik Deutschland
As Europe’s largest economy and second most populous nation (after Russia), Germany is a key member of the continent’s economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
Chicago Council on Global Affairs
Europe After Merkel
In the 30 years since its reunification, Germany has driven the European Union forward. Through the bloc’s growth in size and influence, and in the face of economic and humanitarian crises, Germany has assumed a leadership role – especially since Angela Merkel’s chancellorship in 2005. As Merkel now prepares to leave the stage, who will lead the defense of liberal, democratic values at a time when the EU faces a number of serious tests? Join the Council and a panel of experts on the 31st anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall for a conversation on Germany and Europe’s uncertain future.